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  • Install Rkhunter on Linux Server

    Posted at April 16, 2017 at 9:41 pm by Jithin

    Before we install Rkhunter, we have to discuss about "Rootkit". A rootkit is a type of software that is designed to hide the existence of a certain processes or programs from normal methods of detection. Rootkit programs will have continued privilege to access a server while actively hiding its presence on the server. Originally, a rootkit is a collection of tools to access a server in administrator level where Root refers to the Admin account on Linux systems and kit refers the software compone   [...]

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    When should you upgrade a VPS slice?

    Posted at March 30, 2017 at 10:42 pm by Jithin

    You can upgrade or downgrade vps slices from the InterServer customer control panel itself. Let's discuss some situations when you should upgrade a VPS Slice.   If you own a VPS from us then you may already know what is a VPS Slice. For those who don't know, check the description below.   What is a VPS Slice? In simple terms, it's a bundle of system resources. It includes CPU, memory, disk space, and bandwidth. 1 VPS Slice = 1 Core CPU, 1GB Memory, 25GB Disk Space and 25G   [...]

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    Steps to Install Dropbear SSH Server

    Posted at March 4, 2017 at 12:26 am by Jithin

    Dropbear is a small SSH server using in Linux distributions. It is an open source software. Dropbear SSH completely runs with SSH version 2 protocol, it never supports SSH version 1. Dropbear is an advanced version of open SSH, it only uses low memory and processor resources.   Install Dropbear 1) We need to enable Dropbear repo on the server to install Dropbear. $ wget http://ftp-stud.hs-esslingen.de/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm $ rpm -Uvh http://ftp-stud.hs-essl   [...]

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    Install XRDP on Ubuntu Server with XFCE Template

    Posted at February 27, 2017 at 6:43 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can check how to install XRDP on Ubuntu Server with XFCE Template First of all, RDP stands for Remote Desktop Protocol which is developed by Microsoft, through which a user can connect to another computer over a network connection with a graphical interface. The user needs to install an RDP client software on their local computer and the remote computer must install a RDP server software. The RDP client software is installed on most of the Microsoft Windows versions, Linu   [...]

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    Managing temporary files with systemd-tmpfiles

    Posted at January 28, 2017 at 11:35 am by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can check how to manage temporary files with systemd-tmpfiles   A modern system requires a large number of temporary files and directories. Not just the highly user-visible ones such as /tmp that get used and abused by regular users, but also more task-specific ones such as daemon and user-specific volatile directories under /run. In this context, volatile means that the file system storing these files only exists in memory. When the system reboots or loses power,   [...]

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    Simple steps to install KVM in Linux

    Posted at January 28, 2017 at 11:34 am by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can learn how to install KVM in Linux KVM stands for kernel based virtual machine. KVM is an open source hardware virtualization software, so we can install KVM free of charge. We can create and run multiple Linux and Windows based operating systems on KVM. The KVM module loaded into the current kernel will change our Linux machine to the hypervisor. We can manage KVM by using command line or available graphical tools. Generally virtual machine manager is the most widely u   [...]

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    Install Squid to Configure Proxy Server

    Posted at January 28, 2017 at 11:34 am by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can check steps to install squid to configure a Proxy Server Squid is a caching web proxy server, which is generally installed on a separate server than the webserver with the original files. Squid initially acts as a intermediary, and it passes user request to the server and saving a copy of a requested object itself, the memory is called cache memory. If any user request the same object before expires object from the cache, Squid immediately serves it. It will help to sp   [...]

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    Important Postfix Configuration Settings

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:53 pm by Jithin

    In today’s corporate environment, email is a common method of communication. End users may use dedicated mail clients such as Evolution and mutt to read and send email, or the organization may have a web-based interface for its mail service. However, Linux servers also send email, usually for automatic purposes or to report errors to an administrator. They generally use, directly or indirectly, a standard program called /usr/sbin/sendmail to send messages. In practice, most servers are monitor   [...]

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    How To Extract .tar.gz Files using Linux Command Line

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:53 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can learn how to extract tar.gz files using Linux Command line tools. A .tar.gz file is nothing, but an archive. It is a file that acts as a container for other files. The tar program provides the ability to create tar archives, as well as various other kinds of manipulation. For example, you can use Tar on previously created archives to extract files, to store additional files, or to update, or list files which were already stored. An archive can contain many files, folde   [...]

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    IP Masquerading in Linux

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:53 pm by Jithin

    IP Masquerade is a networking function in Linux similar to the one-to-many NAT (Network Address Translation) servers found in many commercial firewalls and network routers. IP Masquerade, also called IPMASQ or MASQ, allows one or more computers in a network without assigned IP addresses to communicate with the Internet using Linux server's assigned IP address. If a Linux host is connected to the Internet via PPP, Ethernet, etc., the IP Masquerade feature allows other "internal" computers connect   [...]

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    How To Reboot Linux System Using Command Line

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:53 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can learn how to reboot the Linux system using command line tools. If you have a single board computer or you are running a headless computer (one without a display) then you might want to know how to shut the computer down and restart it without physically pulling the power. In this documentation, we can discuss about how to shut down and reboot your system using the Linux command line.   How to shut down your system using command line The shutdown command bring   [...]

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    All about Linux Process Scheduling And Multitasking

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:30 pm by Jithin

    Modern computer systems range from low-end processors that can only execute one single instruction at a time to high-performing supercomputers with hundreds of CPUs each and multiple cores on each CPU, performing hundreds of instructions in parallel.  All of these systems tend to have one thing in common: They always need to run more processes than they actually have cores. The way Linux and other operating systems can actually run more processes than there are actual processing units available   [...]

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    How To Download Files From Linux Command Line

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:30 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can learn how to download files from Linux Command line. Wget, is a part of GNU Project, the name is derived from World Wide Web (WWW). Wget is a command-line downloader for Linux and UNIX environments. It is a popular and absolutely user-friendly free-utility command line tool primarily used for non-interactive downloading files from the web. It is a brilliant tool which is useful for recursive download, offline viewing of HTML from local Server and is available for most    [...]

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    Linux Cat Command Usage with Examples

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:30 pm by Jithin

    The cat command (short for “concatenate “) is one of the most frequently used command in Linux/Unix, Apple Mac OS X operating systems. cat command allows us to create single or multiple files, view contain of file, concatenate files and redirect output in terminal or files. It is a standard Unix program used to concatenate and display files. The cat command display file contents to a screen. Cat command concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output. With no FILE, or when FILE is   [...]

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    Task Scheduling In Linux Command Line

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:29 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can learn how to schedule tasks via the Linux Command line Scheduling one-time tasks with at One solution available to users of a Linux system for scheduling future tasks is at. This not a standalone tool, but rather a system daemon (atd), with a set of command-line tools to interact with the daemon (at, atq and more). In Linux installation, the atd daemon will be installed and enabled automatically. The atd daemon can be found in the at package. Users (including root)    [...]

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    Linux Network Address Translation (NAT)

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:25 pm by Jithin

    Firewalld supports two types of Network Address translation(NAT): masquerading and port forwarding. Both can be configured on a basic level with regular firewall-cmd rules, and more advanced forwarding configurations can be accomplished with rich rules. Both forms of NAT modify certain aspects of a packet, like the source or destination, before sending it on.   Masquerading With masquerading, a system will forward packets that are not directly addressed to itself to the intended re   [...]

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    Managing Swap Space in Linux

    Posted at January 5, 2017 at 4:25 pm by Jithin

    A swap space is an area of a disk which can be used with the Linux kernel memory management subsystem. Swap spaces are used to supplement the system RAM by holding inactive pages of memory. The combined system RAM plus swap space is called virtual memory. When the memory usage in a system exceeds a defined limit, the kernel will comb through RAM looking for idle memory pages assigned to processes. The kernel will write the idle page to the swap area, and will reassign the RAM page to be used by    [...]

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    Linux pinfo command usage with examples

    Posted at December 23, 2016 at 12:20 pm by Jithin

    Pinfo is an info file viewer or a program for viewing info files. The man pages have a formal format useful as a command reference, but less useful as general documentation. For such documents, The GNU Project developed a different online documentation system, known as GNU info. Info documents are an important resource on Linux system because many fundamental components and utilities, such as the coreutils package and glibc standard libraries, are either developed by the GNU Project or utilize t   [...]

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    Learn Linux File System Permissions

    Posted at December 23, 2016 at 12:17 pm by Jithin

    Access to files by users are controlled by file permissions. The Linux file permissions systems is simple and flexible, which makes it easy to understand. Files have just three categories of user to which permissions apply. The file is owned by a user normally the one who created the file. The file is also owned by a single group, usually the primary group of the user who created the file, but this can be changed. Different permissions can be set for the owning user, the owning group, and for al   [...]

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    Linux grep command usage with examples

    Posted at December 23, 2016 at 12:17 pm by Jithin

    The grep command which stands for "global regular expression print," processes text line by line and prints any lines which match a specified pattern. The grep command is used to search text or searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words. By default, grep displays the matching lines. Use grep to search for lines of text that match one or many regular expressions, and outputs only the matching lines. Grep is considered to be one of the most useful commands o   [...]

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    About Linux Access Control List ( ACL )

    Posted at December 23, 2016 at 12:17 pm by Jithin

    Standard Linux file permissions are satisfactory for most situations, but they have limitations. Permissions restricting access to a file are limited to the file owner, membership of a single group, or everyone else. It may not be appropriate for the process (a running program) to be a member of the file’s owning group, and even less desirable to grant permissions to everyone. ACLs allow fine-grained permissions to be allocated to a file. Named users or named groups, as well as users and group   [...]

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    Apache HTTPD Web Server – Details and Installation

    Posted at December 23, 2016 at 12:17 pm by Jithin

    Apache HTTPD is one of the most used web servers on the Internet. Apache HTTP Server is a free software/open source web server for Unix-like systems and other operating systems. A web server is a daemon that speaks the http(s) protocol, a text-based protocol for sending and receiving objects over a network connection. The http protocol is sent over the wire in clear text, using port 80/TCP by default (though other ports can be used). There is also a TLS/SSL encrypted version of the protocol call   [...]

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    How to unlock a container in OpenVZ

    Posted at December 13, 2016 at 11:36 am by Jithin

    In this tutorial we can check how to unlock a container in OpenVZ OpenVZ OpenVZ is an operating system-level virtualization technology for Linux. It allows Multiple isolated operating system instances, called containers/Virtual Private Servers(VPS)/Virtual Environments(VE) to run on a single physical server.   Action Scripts There might be some situations when you need to perform additional actions when a container is started/stopped. You need OpenVZ action scripts to perform th   [...]

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    Install MariaDB in Linux Server

    Posted at December 13, 2016 at 11:31 am by Jithin

    In this tutorial, we can learn how to install MariaDB in a Linux Server. A relational database is a mechanism that allows the persistence of a data in an organize way. Databases store data items, organize as a set of tables with each table representing an entity. There are two types of relational database packages. They are listed below. 1)PostgreSQL: An open source database developed by the PostgreSQL Global Development Group, consisting of Postgres users (both individual and companies) a   [...]

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    Manage and Configure Linux FirewallD ( firewall-cmd )

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:50 pm by Jithin

    FirewallD is the default method in Rhel7 for managing host-level firewalls. Started from the firewalld.service, firewalld manages the Linux kernel net filter subsystem using the low-level iptables, ip6tables, and ebtables commands. FirewallD separates all incoming traffic into zones, with each zone having its own set of rules. To check which zone to use for an incoming connection, firewalld uses the logic, where the first rule that matches wins: 1) If the source address of an incoming packet    [...]

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    What is Linux Samba? Installation and Configuration

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:47 pm by Jithin

    Many organizations need to provide network storage and print services for a range of desktop operating systems, Linux uses the samba server to provide services that Microsoft windows clients can use. A Samba server offers the following services: 1) Share one or more directory trees 2) Share one or more Distributed file-system trees 3) Share printers installed on the server among Windows clients on the network 4) Assist clients with network browsing 5) Authenticate clients logging    [...]

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    What is Network Bonding? Types of Network Bonding

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:46 pm by Jithin

    Network bonding is a process of combing or joining two or more network interfaces together into a single interface. Network bonding offers performance improvements and redundancy by increasing the network throughput and bandwidth. If one interface is down or unplugged the other one will work. It can be used in situations where you need fault tolerance, redundancy or load balancing networks. In Linux, a special kernel module named bonding is used to connect multiple network interfaces into a sing   [...]

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    Linux Mail Command Usage with Examples

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:46 pm by Jithin

    Have you imagined to send emails through command line from a server or automate an email with all the shell scripting or web applications? Linux servers facilitate the ability to send emails from the command line or  by scripting. In this tutorial we will be discussing on how to use the mail commands on Linux in order to send emails through terminal.   Working of mail command Whenever a mail is sent, initially the mail command calls the standard send mail binary which is located in /u   [...]

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    How to Repair Databases in cPanel

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:44 pm by Jithin

    When the website gets the following error we do have a provision to check and repair database in cPanel. 1) cpaneluser_database is marked as crashed and needs to be repaired 2) Checking the database 3) Table attribute does not exist, 4) Supplied argument is not a valid If you are getting the above errors, please do the following steps to check and repair database in cPanel.   Checking the Database 1) Login to your cPanel interface. 2) Click on ‘MySQL Database’ ico   [...]

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    What is Virtual Memory And Demand Paging?

    Posted at November 29, 2016 at 1:44 pm by Jithin

      Virtual memory and demand paging are memory management techniques used in Linux. In this article, we are going to see what is the memory management and what are virtual memory and demand paging. Memory Management Memory management is an important activity done effectively in the kernel. Memory management is the process of managing the computer memory. ie, This includes assigning memory to various running programs to keep the performance of the system stable. The memory should be    [...]

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    Linux Network File System (NFS) Installation and Configuration

    Posted at November 18, 2016 at 7:08 am by Jithin

    NFS, the Network File system, is an internet standard protocol used by Linux, Unix, and similar operating systems as their native network file system. It is an open standard under active extension which supports native Linux permissions and file system features. Linux 7 supports NFSv4 by default, and falls back automatically to NFSv2 if that is not available. NFS v4 uses the TCP protocol to communicate with the server, while older versions of NFS may use either TCP or UDP. NFS server's export sh   [...]

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    Linux Text-Based Web Browsers

    Posted at November 18, 2016 at 7:07 am by Jithin

    We all are familiar with web browsers. Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox are some the most popular web browsers. Have you ever needed your web browser to be ran on a command line? For a web site admin, the command line interface is necessary for effective management. Maybe you would prefer a back end to trouble shoot the issues on your VPS. Here we use the Text-Based Web Browsers. In this article, we are going to see the text-based web browsers in depth.   What is a Text-Based Web Browser   [...]

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    About Linux FSCK ( FILE SYSTEM CONSISTENCY CHECK )

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 1:00 pm by Jithin

    The FSCK is a system utility. It is a tool that is used to check the consistency of a file system in the Unix-like operating systems. It is a tool that will check and repair inconsistencies in Unix-like systems including Linux. The tool can be used with the help of 'fsck' command in Linux. This is equivalent to the 'CHKDSK' in the Microsoft Windows. In this article, we are going to see the fsck tool in detail.   File Inconsistency We've already seen that the fsck will repair the in   [...]

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    Linux Memcached Explained

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 1:00 pm by Jithin

    Memcached is a memory caching system. To understand memcached, we need to have a preliminary knowledge about some web terms. Let's see those basic levels and easy to understand features before going to memcached.   Definitions Static and Dynamic Websites The websites are basically classified into two: static websites and dynamic websites. A static website can be defined as a simple website that is usually coded in plain HTML. The whole content of the webpages of these websites w   [...]

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    What is GlusterFS?

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:59 pm by Jithin

    Gluster is a distributed scale out file system. It provides an additional storage based on our storage requirements. Gluster includes applications like cloud streaming media services and content delivery networks. GlusterFS is a distributed software based file system in the user space. It can store multiple petabytes (2 to the 50th power bytes) of data. GlusterFS is a software only file system in which data is stored in file systems like ext4, xfs etc... It can handle multiple clients. GlusterFS   [...]

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    Quota Management in cPanel

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:59 pm by Jithin

    There can be many users present in a Linux system. A system administrator can limit the amount of disk space that may be consumed by users by implementing disk quota over them. This will restrict the users from over consuming the disk space. It is possible to enable quotas for individual users and user groups. It will help to manage the space allocated for user-specific files (for example, email) separately from the total space allocated to the projects a user works on, when the projects are giv   [...]

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    What is LILO?

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:58 pm by Jithin

    LILO stands for Linux Loader that is used to load Linux into memory. It can boot operating systems from floppy disks, hard disks, and it does not depend on a specific file system. Lilo handles some tasks such as locate the kernel, identify other supporting programs, load memory, and starts the kernel. The configuration file of lilo is located at “/etc/lilo.conf". Lilo reads this configuration file and it tells Lilo where it should place the boot loader.   Boot process When LILO l   [...]

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    How to Change Hostname in RHEL / CentOS 7.0

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:58 pm by Jithin

    In this tutorial, we will be discussing on how to change the hostname in RHEL / CentOS 7.0. This is possible way much easier through command line.   Check Hostname To check the hostname, type the following command: $ hostname The default hostname of the system is localhost.localdomain. We can change it by editing the file, /etc/hostname.  This can be done by opening the file with a text editor and entering in  the desired hostname. $ vi /etc/hostname Please note that after th   [...]

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    Processes in Linux – An Overview

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:54 pm by Jithin

    Everybody that has experience with computers will be familiar with the term 'process'. What is a process? In this tutorial, we are going to see about the processes in detail. Let's start with the definition of process. Please keep in mind that, we are talking about processes in Linux, throughout this article.   Definition: Process A process is the program running. It will be more clear if we do say a process is an instance of the program, which is in the memory or currently running   [...]

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    Linux ss Command

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:54 pm by Jithin

    ss - socket statistics In this tutorial, we will be discussing on how to use the ss command and we will be covering some of the topics on how to check network connections and socket statistics. ss command is a new IP tool command which provides higher information than netstat command. The ss command fetches data from many /proc files in order to provide the information to the user. In case the system has more connections to display then it might take some more time to show the information. Al   [...]

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    Linux Architecture

    Posted at November 11, 2016 at 12:48 pm by Jithin

    Linux is an open-source operating system based upon UNIX. It is an operating system just like the common commercial ones sold such Windows XP, Windows 7, and Mac OS X. An operating system is the graphical interface between a computer user and the computer system. It manages all the hardware resources your computer has and establishes the communication between the software and the hardware.   Open Source Software An open source software is a software that its source code is made availab   [...]

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    How to check CPU details on Linux

    Posted at October 28, 2016 at 4:23 pm by Jithin

      Processor/CPU details It is important to know the details about the processor and the specification of the system used. In this topic we will be covering how to get the details regarding number of cores, availability of hyper threading, architecture, cache size etc. It is not possible to get all the information in one command, so we will be going through some of the commonly used commands for getting details regarding the processor/CPU (Central Processing Unit) 1) Vendor and mode   [...]

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    Linux Kill Command

    Posted at October 28, 2016 at 4:22 pm by Jithin

    The kill command is an excellent command to terminate a process directly without having to reboot or logging out the computer. Before killing a process, it would be wise to know what is process. Process is known as a running instance of a program, which can also be called as task executing or running. These running instance so called process are assigned by a unique process identification number called (PID). The assigning of the process identification number (PID) is automatically created by th   [...]

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    XAMPP Installation in Linux and Windows

    Posted at October 28, 2016 at 4:22 pm by Jithin

      XAMPP Server is a free open source cross-platform web server package. XAMPP is an AMP stack which allows to install Apache, MySQL and PHP in your computer together with some other useful software. It has been designed to provide an easy installation experience. It is free and available for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. It provides an easy way for developers to create a local web server for testing purposes. Since most actual web server deployments use the same components as XAMPP, it prov   [...]

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    Touch command in Linux

    Posted at October 28, 2016 at 4:21 pm by Jithin

    The touch command is used to create an empty file and also to change the modified time of a file. The syntax of the touch command is  touch [OPTION]... FILE... 1) Create a blank file. Touch command allows to create a blank file. In case if the file already exist it will change the access time of the file. $ touch test.txt 2) Create multiple files with touch. By giving a line of separation among the name of the files will allow you to create multiple files at a time. $ touch test.t   [...]

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    What is Docker Container?

    Posted at October 14, 2016 at 3:59 pm by Jithin

    Docker is an open source project for developing, shipping, and running applications. It automates the deployment of Linux applications inside Linux containers. Docker provides the capability to package an application with its run-time dependencies into a container. It provides a Docker CLI command line tool for the lifecycle management of image-based containers. Docker enables you to separate your applications from your infrastructure so you can deliver software quickly. With Docker, we can mana   [...]

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    Installing and Configuring Linux DDOS Deflate

    Posted at September 22, 2016 at 6:43 pm by Jithin

    DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) is a type of DOS (Denial of Service) attack in which an online service is made unavailable to its intended users. This is a frequently encountered attack due to availability of various tools online that are made to target a wide variety of important resources.  These tools are easy to use and are freely available on the internet in a simple google search. These tools make UDP, TCP or HTTP requests to the victim server.   Types of DDOS attacks:     [...]

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    Steps to Install and Configure PostgreSQL in cPanel

    Posted at September 22, 2016 at 6:03 pm by Jithin

    PostgreSQL is a general purpose database management system developed based on POSTGRES 4.2. PostgreSQL was designed to run on various platforms such as Solaris, Windows etc. It is a free and open source software that gives us the ability to modify PostgreSQL in any form. Early on, PostgreSQL was designed to run on UNIX-like platforms  and later it was designed to be portable. Due to it's stability it requires only minimum efforts to manage. The cost of developing web applications using PostgreS   [...]

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    How to Enable Bash on Windows 10?

    Posted at September 22, 2016 at 5:55 pm by Jithin

    Bash for Windows is an Ubuntu-based tool that helps to run familiar Linux applications on Windows. This is not a virtual machine, container, chroot, or a full Linux distribution. It is basically a medium to run Linux applications mostly based on the terminals and Bash commands in Windows 10. It provides access to the Windows File System. This whole concept is achieved by the concept of Linux-compatible kernel interface which does not use a single line of Linux code. Bash for Windows feature allo   [...]

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    How to Export and Import Postgresql Database

    Posted at September 22, 2016 at 5:51 pm by Jithin

    PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system and it provides strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. PostgreSQL runs operating systems such as Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows.   PostgreSQL database export Exporting PostgreSQL database to a file by using the pg_dump command line program pg_dump is an effective tool to backup postgres database. pg_dump is used to back up a loca   [...]

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